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Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
People are, on the whole, poor at considering background information when making individual decisions. At first glance this might seem like a strength that __1_ the ability to make judgments which are unbiased by _2_ factors. But Dr Simonton speculated that an inability to consider the big _3_ was leading decision-makers to be biased by the daily samples of information they were working with. _4_, he theorized that a judge _5_ of appearing too soft _6_crime might be more likely to send someone to prison __7_he had already sentenced five or six other defendants only to forced community service on that day.
To __8__this idea, they turned their attention to the university-admissions process. In theory, the ____9___ of an applicant should not depend on the few others___10____ randomly for interview during the same day, but Dr Simonton suspected the truth was____11____.
He studied the results of 9,323 MBA interviews _12_ by 31 admissions officers. The interviewers had _13_ applicants on a scale of one to five. This scale _14_ numerous factors into consideration. The scores were _15_ used in conjunction with an applicant’s score on the GMAT, a standardized exam which is _16_out of 800 points, to make a decision on whether to accept him or her.
Dr Simonton found if the score of the previous candidate in a daily series of interviewees was 0.75 points or more higher than that of the one _17__ that, then the score for the next applicant would_18_ by an average of 0.075 points. This might sound small, but to_19_the effects of such a decrease a candidate would need 30 more GMAT points than would otherwise have been _20__.
1. A grants B submits C transmits D delivers
2. A minor B external C crucial D objective
3. A issue B vision C picture D moment
4. A Above all B On average C In principle D For example
5. A fond B fearful C capable D thoughtless
6. A in B for C to D on
7. A if B until C though D unless
8. A. test B. emphasize C. share D. promote
9. A. decision B. quality C. status D. success
10. A. found B. studied C. chosen D. identified
11. A. otherwise B. defensible C. replaceable D. exceptional
12. A. inspired B. expressed C. conducted D. secured
13. A. assigned B. rated C. matched D. arranged
14. A. put B. got C. took D. gave
15. A. instead B. then C. ever D. rather
16. A. selected B. passed C. marked D. introduced
17. A below B after C above D before
18. A jump B float C fluctuate D drop
19. A achieve B undo C maintain D disregard
20. A necessary B possible C promising D helpful
Section II Reading Comprehension
Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
In the 2006 film version of The Devil Wears Prada ,Miranda Priestly, played by Meryl Streep, scolds her unattractive assistant for imagining that high fashion doesn’t affect her, Priestly explains how the deep blue color of the assistant’s sweater descended over the years from fashion shows to departments stores and to the bargain bin in which the poor girl doubtless found her garment.
This top-down conception of the fashion business couldn’t be more out of date or at odds with the feverish would described in Overdressed, Elizabeth Cline’s three-year indictment of “fast fashion”. In the last decade or so ,advances in technology have allowed mass-market labels such as Zara ,H&M, and Uniqlo to react to trends more quickly and anticipate demand more precisely. Quicker turnarounds mean less wasted inventory, more frequent release, and more profit. These labels encourage style-conscious consumers to see clothes as disposable-meant to last only a wash or two, although they don’t advertise that –and to renew their wardrobe every few weeks. By offering on-trend items at dirt-cheap prices, Cline argues, these brands have hijacked fashion cycles, shaking an industry long accustomed to a seasonal pace.
The victims of this revolution , of course ,are not limited to designers. For H&M to offer a $5.95 knit miniskirt in all its 2,300-pius stores around the world, it must rely on low-wage overseas labor, order in volumes that strain natural resources, and use massive amounts of harmful chemicals.
Overdressed is the fashion world’s answer to consumer-activist bestsellers like Michael Pollan’s The Omnivore’s Dilemma. “Mass-produced clothing ,like fast food, fills a hunger and need, yet is non-durable and wasteful,” Cline argues. Americans, she finds, buy roughly 20 billion garments a year – about 64 items per person – and no matter how much they give away, this excess leads to waste.
Towards the end of Overdressed, Cline introduced her ideal, a Brooklyn woman named Sarah Kate Beaumont, who since 2008 has made all of her own clothes – and beautifully. But as Cline is the first to note, it took Beaumont decades to perfect her craft; her example can’t be knocked off.
Though several fast-fashion companies have made efforts to curb their impact on labor and the environment – including H&M, with its green Conscious Collection line –Cline believes lasting change can only be effected by the customer. She exhibits the idealism common to many advocates of sustainability, be it in food or in energy. Vanity is a constant; people will only start shopping more sustainably when they can’t afford not to.
21. Priestly criticizes her assistant for her
[A] poor bargaining skill.
[B] insensitivity to fashion.
[C] obsession with high fashion.
[D] lack of imagination.
22. According to Cline, mass-market labels urge consumers to
[A] combat unnecessary waste.
[B] shut out the feverish fashion world.
[C] resist the influence of advertisements.
[D] shop for their garments more frequently.
23. The word “indictment” (Line 3, Para.2) is closest in meaning to
24. Which of the following can be inferred from the last paragraph?
[A] Vanity has more often been found in idealists.
[B] The fast-fashion industry ignores sustainability.
[C] People are more interested in unaffordable garments.
[D] Pricing is vital to environment-friendly purchasing.
25. What is the subject of the text?
[A] Satire on an extravagant lifestyle.
[B] Challenge to a high-fashion myth.
[C] Criticism of the fast-fashion industry.
[D] Exposure of a mass-market secret.
An old saying has it that half of all advertising budgets are wasted-the trouble is, no one knows which half. In the internet age, at least in theory, this fraction can be much reduced . By watching what people search for, click on and say online, companies can aim “behavioral” ads at those most likely to buy.
In the past couple of weeks a quarrel has illustrated the value to advertisers of such fine-grained information: Should advertisers assume that people are happy to be tracked and sent behavioral ads? Or should they have explicit permission?
In December 2010 America's Federal Trade Commission (FTC) proposed adding a "do not track "(DNT) option to internet browsers ,so that users could tell advertisers that they did not want to be followed .Microsoft's Internet Explorer and Apple's Safari both offer DNT ;Google's Chrome is due to do so this year. In February the FTC and Digital Advertising Alliance (DAA) agreed that the industry would get cracking on responding to DNT requests.
On May 31st Microsoft Set off the row: It said that Internet Explorer 10,the version due to appear windows 8, would have DNT as a default.
It is not yet clear how advertisers will respond. Getting a DNT signal does not oblige anyone to stop tracking, although some companies have promised to do so. Unable to tell whether someone really objects to behavioral ads or whether they are sticking with Microsoft’s default, some may ignore a DNT signal and press on anyway.
Also unclear is why Microsoft has gone it alone. After all, it has an ad business too, which it says will comply with DNT requests, though it is still working out how. If it is trying to upset Google, which relies almost wholly on default will become the norm. DNT does not seem an obviously huge selling point for windows 8-though the firm has compared some of its other products favorably with Google's on that count before. Brendon Lynch, M
Microsoft's chief privacy officer, blogged:"we believe consumers should have more control." Could it really be that simple?
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